The priming coumpound is located in the rim on rimfire ammo.
The firing pin strikes anywhere on the rim to ignite the charge of powder.
Typically small caliber .22 .17 HMR, .22 mag etc..
Through history larger caliber rimfires have existed.
The draw back is reliability. Leave rimfire in a gun or mag and possibly expose the prime compound to oil water, etc.
The advantace, cost. Rimfire is cheap to shoot.
Centerfire uses the primer in the middle of the case. It is more reliable, less affeted by external moisture and oil. Reloadable (typically)
No a rimfire can't fire centerfire ammo unless a convversion is used. 1911 style pistols have conversion kits as well as AR type rifles and possibly some others.
Brief, but hope it helps a bit.
If not, stand by, someone will cut and paste the heck out of this then we'll be in a 3 week debate with a few bloody noses.