You may want to re-read my first post? I wasnt quite sure what it was, after some digging and photo tags I was able to find what and who made this single shot Black powder pistol, It was was mfg By Nicolaus Dreyse (Dreyese&Collenbusch) of the same fame as the prussian Dreyse needle fire rifles, seems he attempted to produce a needle fired hand gun the first photo is of the back end of the single shot to show the striker.
seems he also mfg a needle fired revolver which I'll attach a couple photos of,they fired a paper cartridge with a percussion cap inside of, the needle pierced the ctg and ignited the cap (early attempt at a self consuming cartridge)
The Alsop revolvers were made in the building of Joseph W. Alsop, Sr. in the South Farms section of Middletown, Connecticut. Joseph W. Alsop, Sr, Joseph W. Alsop, Jr, Charles Alsop are listed in the incorporation papers of Savage Revolving Fire Arms Co.
It is believed that 500 Alsops had been produced between 1862 and 1863. Contrary to North & Savage, the Alsop revolvers were more a civilian pocket weapon. Alsop revolvers were expensive to make and not enough were sold to continue profitable operation. With declining profits and loss of employees to the booming war contract firms in operation nearby, the Alsop Company ceased production by the end of 1863.
Product .40 caliber percussion, 6 shot single action revolver, 6. 3/4" octagon tip-up barrel
These revolvers were manufactured in very small quantity by Wesson, Stephens & Miller, Hartford, Connecticut.
In 1839 Edwin Wesson from the manufacturers did some modifications known as Wesson-Leavitt Revolvers and leeds to the foundation of the Massachusetts Arms Company. American Firearms
Allso called Massachusetts Manufacturing Company
Formed in 1849 and incorporated on March 5, 1850. Founders, Edwin Wesson, Joshua Stevens, William Miller, James T. Ames, Timothy W. Carter, Benjamin F. Warner. Daniel B. Wesson and Horace Smith. As superintendent Thomas Warner was hired. The factory was that of Ames Manufacturing Co, which made pistols, swords and machinery. Only little modification of the former Ames factury was needed.
The first product were revolvers made by Thomas Warner for Edwin Wesson and almost identical to those made by Wesson in Hartford. These Wesson & Leavitt revolvers were made under patents 6,669 of Wesson, patent 182 of Leavitt and patend 7,802 of Joshua Stevens. Most difference are the barrel catch, the grip and the cylinder bolt. These revolvers were made in .31 and .40 calibers.
.31 caliber percussion, 6 shot Wesson & Leavitt Belt Revolver, 3" to 7" barrels. The very early production has the Wesson barrel catch and military style buttcaps and are marked
MASS. ARMS CO. / PATENT on the topstrap
CHICOPEE FALLS, MASS / 1850 on the lockplate
LEAVITT'S pATENT APRIL 29, 1837 on the cylinder face
later production had the same markings as the Army or Draggon model. Production was about 1000.
.40 caliber percussion, 6 shot Wesson & Leavitt Dragoon or Army Revolver, 7 1/4" (standard) round barrel, between 1850 and 1851. The first 30 guns were made with 6 1/4 inch barrels later some 6 1/4 and 8" barrel guns were made. The guns are marked:
MASS. ARMS CO. / CHICOPEE FALLS on topstraps
WESSON'S AND LEAVITT'S PATENTS on lockplate
PATENT NOV. 26, 1850 on the barrel catch (the very early guns had no marking there)
LEAVITT'S PATENT APRIL 29, 1837 on the rear of the cylinder
WESSON'S / PATENT / AUG. 28, 1849 on the lever gear
these guns had no loading lever though Stevens had a patent for one but never reached production status. Production is estimatet at 800 guns.
Based on the army frame very few (20 or 30) revolving rifles were made. They had integral or detachable stocks and barrel length from 16" to 24" and are numbered in the Draggon or Army serial number range.
Wession & Leavitt's marked revolversThese revolvers were an infringement of the Colt patent and in 1851 Massachusetts Arms Co. was found guilty on three counts - rotating the cylinder by cocking thee hammer, connecting a cylinder locking bolt to the hammer, placing partitions between the nipples to avoid multiple discharge by incident. Therefore the company changed the pattern and offered a modified model wich hand revolved cylinder and Maynard priming device to avoid nipples capped.
.31 caliber percussion, single shot pistol, 2 1/2" to 3 1/2" about 1/3 round and 2/3 octagonal barrel, center hammer with Maynard primer, markings
barrel = MASS. ARMS. CO./CHICOPEE FALLS
on orimer = MAYNARD'S PATENT SEPT. 22, 1845
.28 caliber percussion, 6 shot Maynard Pocket Revolver, barrel length are 2 1/2" and 3", the mechanism is identical to the .31 caliber guns. About 900 of these first pocket model revolvers were made from 1851 to 1857 and are marked
MASS. ARMS CO. / CHICOPEE FALLS on the topstrap
MAYNARD'S PATENT 1845 on the primer cover
.31 caliber percussion, 6 shot Maynard Belt Revolver, barrels were 3" to 7", to handturn the cylinder a button has to press inside the trigger guard. Between 1851 and 1857, production was about 1000 revolvers. 200 were shiped to John Brown in 1857.
In 1853 Stevens got a patent for a revolving mechanism which is rather complicate, first the hammer is cocked, the Maynard tape primer is advanced and then the trigger was pulled to unlock the cylinder, revolving and relocking it and than released the hammer to fire. About 50 were produced and easily identifyable by the lack of the release button in the trigger guard.
To utilize this mechanism in the .28 pocket model the frame had to enlarge. Produced were
.28 caliber percussion, Pocket Model Revolver with Maynard tape primer, 6 shot, 2 1/2", 3" or 3 1/2" octagonal or round barrel
.31 caliber percussion, Pocket Model Revolver with Maynard tape primer, 6 shot, 2 1/2", 3" or 3 1/2" octagonal or round barrel
It is estimated that only 250 of both models were made of which 75% were factory converted to al later revolving mechanism before leaving the company.
This later mechanism is that of the Stevens patent no. 12,189 and rotated the cylinder by pulling trigger before the hammer was cocked. Produced were about 1400 revolvers from 1855 to 1857, of which the first 200 had not the PATENT 7 JAN. 2, 1855 marking on the backstrap. Most were with 3 1/2" round barrel. 900 of them were with the Leavitt patent convex cylinder face and 500 with the flat cylinder face and both hat their own serial number range. Some of then had four numbers. The serial number is that under the right grip. The others are assembly numbers or royalty numbers fot the various patents.
When the COlt's patent expired in 1857 Massachusetts Arms Co. did make revolvers which were revolved by the hammer. 2000 were made about 1000 each with the Leavitt convex cylinder and flat cylinder face. Before their production started about 300 conversions (flat and convex cylinder faces) were made by pinning the tumbler to the hammer and grinding of the spur of the trigger used to turn the cylinder.
.31 caliber percussion revolver, five shot, with 3 1/4" octagonal barrel, checkered walnut grip, made from about 1857 to 1860, the loading lever is side mounted, the serial number appears on the cylinder and the left side of the frame. Markings are
MADE FOR ADAMS REVOLVING ARMS CO. N.Y.
BY MASS,ARMS CO. CHICOPEE FALLS
PATENT MAY 3 1853, JUNE 3, 1856 April 7, 1857. The Kerr's patent date issued on April 14, 1857 is missstamped on these models. These were the Adams, Beaumont and Kerr patents for his self-cocking action, for the double action and single action and for the loading lever. Production is estimated at 4500 revolvers. See also Adams Revolving Arms Co.
About 200 guns were made with 4 1/4" barrels of which 100 were made with round barrel.
Last edited by Rex in OTZ; 03-22-2012 at 06:11 PM.
Joslyn Firearms Company, Stonington, Connecticut mfg firearms from 1862 thru 1865, most remember the carbine they mfg for the Military, they sold a few revolvers to the Union Jan 11,1862 to April10, 1862 they mfg and deliverd 1100 if the Joslyn .44 Army Model Revolver.
Army Model Revolver
.44 caliber percussion, 5 shot revolver, side hammer, 8" octagonal barrel
Civil War 1st Model Joslyn Army .44, 5-Shot Revolver
Benjamin Joslyn rceived a patent in May of 1858 for the five shot design.
He submited them for trial in May of 1859 to a board made up of some soon to be famous folks- Colonel Joe Johnston of the 1st Cavalry, and Ordnance majors Ramsey, Laidley, and not so famous Maynardier. They liked it, and said tha tits mechanism was superior to other revolvers being simpler, surer, and less liable to get out of order. But none were ordered.
Joslyn's agent William Freeman was able to interest the Government in 225 on November or December of 1861. Reaction was lukewarm, and likely due to the arms shortage scare of 1861. The Government ordered 875 more between January and April 1862 directly from the factory at a cost of $22.50 each. Freeman had come under suspicion from Joslyn of being too much of a salesman- long on promises and short on delivery. It took several months before a contract was let, in August 1861 for 500 at $25 each with appendages. . With Joslyn in Stonignton CT tied up in carbine work, 50 men were hired to make the revolvers at a shop Freeman had in Worchester.
The delays were costly, and the Government got suspicious as well and cancelled Freeman's deal recommending that no revolvers be bought except on the Open Market for $15 each.
Freeman had also been working on the Navy to buy some. In May of 1861 he wrote to the Navy, tryng to overcome their like of .36's by saying that the .44 Joselyn weighed a pound less than the Colt .44 Army and about the same as the M1851 Colt Navy .36. As likely with the 1861 shortage scare, the Navy said send a sample for testing. With waterproof cartridges of 20 grains, five rounds or 25 shots were loaded and fired in three minutes, 18 seconds in a cylidner that had been submerged in water for 22 hours. All total, 100 rounds were fired: the gun failed to fire one time out of a 100 shots.
Suspicions of Freeman being a BS'er saw a contract go to Joselyn directly for 100 revolvers on July 1, 1861. The first batch of 50 arrived in September. Each was fired 10 times as a test, with no problems. Some hung up, the hammer being hard to cock. The Naval Yard machinist found that the pawl that worked teh cylidner was too large to fit the scear that it moved in. It was an easy adjustment/fix. Impressed, the next day a 10,000 gun order was placed. The seocnd batch of 50 were delivered in October, and also fired 10 times as a test. Some fialed, and were sent back.
Joslyn took over production from Freeman in September 1861 and things started to move nicely. By early 1862, 3,000 had been made, with all but the batch of 500 being made by Freeman. Joslyn fired Freeman and went with the NY City firm of Bruff Brothers & Seaver to be his agent.
The first 250 revovlers purchased through Bruff Bros & Seaver were sent to Ohio. Impressed, Ohio purchased 775 more as well as 610 Joslyn carbines. 625 revolvers were issued to the 5th Ohio Cavalry, 324 to the 6th Ohio Cavalry.
Those regiments were sent south as part of the Tennessee campaign and on to Pittsburgh Landing for the Battle of Shiloh April 6-7, 1862.
Leading up to the big battle, cavalry was out screening and scouting. On March 31, 1862, 28 men were sent out from Company "I" of the 5th OH Cav, to relieve pickets about two miles from Adamsville. There, they were attacked by Confederate cavalry armed with double-barreled shotguns. It was a bad match- never bring a knife to a gun fight. The 28 men 5th Cav men under the command of a lieutenant, had only four Shaprs' carbines, a few Joslyn revolvers, while the majority had sabres only.
Surprisingly, only three Ohioans and four horses were killed before they had to retreat.
The lieutenant, Chales Murray, wrote that that the entirei company had only 28 Joslyn revolvers and that "...they are long since condemned as wholly unfit for service. They are a spurious weapon, made out of cast iron, and one half of the time, will neither cock nor revolve."
Hmmmm. Was he covering his butt for future promotions and no blame?
His commander, General Lew Wallace (later of 'Ben Hur" and Jesse James fame) agreed, and forwarded Murray's letter up the chain of command.
The 675 Joslyn revolvers were recalled, to be turned in by late April due to their utterly worthless field service. Where that is significant, is that the 1,100 or so men of the 5th OH Cavalry were left in the field with no pistols at all, 110 Sharps carbines, but sabres for everyone. During the summer of 1862, they were rearmed with Burnside carbines and Colt M1860 Army revolvers.
However, other units continued using the Joselyn revolvers as late as 1864 before being rearmed.
The Joslyns turned in went into storage, as condemned, and ended up in the post War sales dumps. On October 2, 1865 Watervliet Arsenal sold their 44 for $3.65 each. Allegheny Arsenal on Janaury 18, 1866 for a high of $4.00. On Janaury 23, 1866, Columbus Arsenal sold their remaining 242 for a total $919.60.
By the June 2, 1868 sale by Washington Arsenal, they had fallen to a low of .50 cents.
And stayed low. On June 19, 1901 NY firm Hartley & Graham bought the last 49 from the NY Arsenal for 16 cents each.
Although the firm of Allen & Wheelock was only in business for eight years - from 1857 to 1864 - it produced a surprisingly large variety of firearms. Their products included single shot, double barrel, 4, 5, and 6 shot pepperbox pistols; single barrel, double barrel and revolving cylinder rifles, both muzzle loading and breech loading; and over 20 revolver models with more than a hundred variations. Included in this proliferation were the five percussion revolver models with which we are concerned. This entire arms production was based upon the various patents of Ethan Allen.
Allen held 22 firearms patents, of which five were applicable to percussion revolvers. The first, No. 3,998 of April 16, 1845, was .not granted for a percussion revolver but for a pepperbox. Its double action mechanism, in which the hammer was raised and dropped and the barrels revolved by a single pull of the trigger, was an improvement on his 1837 patent, which applied only to single shot pistols. The revolving mechanism was very simple a screw in the side of the trigger pivoted an arm, which acted on the ratchet on the rear of the cylinder. Many percussion revolver makers used variations of this.
Various other revolver patents by Allen covered changes to the mechanism and the addition of the combination trigger guard/loading lever (No. 16,367 of January 13, 1857 and No. 18,836 of December 15, 1857). He also added a square projection on the front of the cylinder to deflect firing gases away from the cylinder pin to prevent fouling (No. 21,400 of September 7, 1858).
Ethan Allen had been making single shot pistols and pepperboxes for almost twenty years before the partnership with Thomas Prentice Wheelock was formed. With the beginning of the new company, Allen & Wheelock, a diversified line of band guns was introduced. The fortuitous combination of events--diversification and the expiration of Colt's patent--allowed the manufacture of revolvers. The first types were double action only, with flat bar hammers and were intended for close range as no sights were provided.
Two sizes of the Double Action Bar Hammer Pocket Model were made, a large frame and a small frame. First to be made were the large frame, which were 5 shot .34 caliber with octagonal barrels from 3 to 6 inches long. The first 400 or so came with a cylinder pin which was threaded and slotted for a screwdriver at the front end and which was screwed into the frame under the barrel. This frame was about 11/16 inch long in front of the cylinder. At around serial number 450, the cylinder pin was changed to a regular sliding pin held by a screw entering through the Ali bottom of the frame in front of the trigger guard. After about 50 were made, the Ali frame in front of the cylinder was shortened about 1,4 inch. The serial numbering started again at 1. Almost 1,000 of this type were made. Those with the long frame were marked ALLEN & WHEELOCK on top of the frame and PATENTED APRIL 16, 1845 on the left side of the hammer. The short frame varieties retained the hammer marking, but ALLEN & WHEELOCK WORCESTER, MASS. / ALLEN'S PATENT APRIL 16, 1845 was placed on the left side of the barrel instead of the frame marking. The cylinder decoration of both varieties was a deeply engraved forest scene with deer and dogs. Cylinder engraving on the Allen & Wheelock revolvers was extremely deep and has held up over the years better than on any other American percussion revolver.
The small frame size of the Double Action Bar Hammer Pocket Model was also 5 shot, but it was .31 caliber and with octagonal barrels ranging in length from 2 to 3 'h inches. They had the second type of cylinder pin and catch arrangement and the same markings on the side of the barrel as the short frame mentioned above. The hammers were unmarked. The cylinder scene was changed to include two deer and three ducks around a lake. About 1,000 of the small frame bar hammer revolvers were made.
Next in production for Allen & Wheelock was the Side Hammer Model with a combination trigger guard/loading lever. Four distinct frame sizes, corresponding to caliber, were made, and there were also two variations for each frame size, with the variations being in the sideplates, loading lever catch and in the marking. The first variation had a lateral friction catch for the trigger guard and the sideplate on the left extending down the side of the spur trigger housing. They were marked ALLEN & WHEELOCK on top of the barrel and ALLEN'S PATENT JAN. 13, 1857 on the left quarter-flat of the barrel. The second variation had a spring loaded catch for the loading lever mounted on the rear of the spur trigger housing. These were marked ALLEN & WHEELOCK WORCESTER, MASS.I ALLEN'S PATENTS JAN. 13, 1857, SEPT. 7, 1858. on the left side of the barrel. It has been estimated that less than 100 of each of the .28, .34 and .36 calibers and 250 of the .31 calibers of the early type were made. Approximately 1,000 each of the .28 and .31 calibers and 750 each of the .34 and .36 calibers of the later type were made. There were numerous small variations on all of the se, but features common to all were: octagonal barrels ranging from 2 to 8 Y2 inches in length; cylinder pins screwing into the frame from the rear; and deeply engraved cylinder scene with a forest setting and varying numbers of deer. All of the .36 caliber were six shot and all smaller Side Hammer Models were five shot. The cylinder attachment and rotating method was different from most percussion revolvers. The recoil plate behind the cylinder was permaČnently attached to the frame and was rotated when the hammer was cocked. A radial slot halfway across the back of the cylinder fit over a raised bar on the rotating plate and locked the two together for rotating the cylinder.
The third model was the Allen & Wheelock Center Hammer revolver. It was a definite improvement over its side hammer predecessor. In addition to a better hammer location, the cylinder pin was moved to the front of the frame. Two sizes of the Center Hammer Model were made, a .44 caliber army and a .36 caliber Davy. Both were six shots and the barrel lengths varied from 4 to 7 1/2 inches on the Davy size with 6 inch barrel lengths most common. All of the .44 army size have 7 1/2 inch barrels and this model is quite standard. The markings were the same as the later Side Hammer Model. About 700 of the army size and slightly more than 500 of the navy size were made. The U.S. Ordnance Dept. purchased 536 of the .44 caliber Center Hammer Model during the Civil War. The first 198 were purchased from William Read & Sons of Boston on December 31, 1861, and the remainder came directly from the company.
Known as the Providence Police Model, the fourth percussion revolver model made by Allen & Wheelock is the only one that does not carry the maker's name. Because of this lack of marking, some authorities have held that the firm did not make this revolver. However, several features patented by Ethan Allen, including the cylinder pin and the gas deflector around the pin (Patent No. 21,400) lead us to feel this model is an Allen & Wheelock product. We cannot offer any proof for the story that the model received its name from a number of these revolvers, which were used by the Providence (Rhode Island?) Police.
This spur trigger revolver is six shot, single action and .36 caliber. Barrel lengths were customarily 3 or 4 inches, although a few had barrels as long as 6 inches. One divergent feature was the placing of the cylinder stop notches at the front of the cylinder instead of at the rear. Serial numbers indicate over 700 were made. It is a compact and well-made pocket or belt revolver, but was phased out when Allen & Wheelock went to making cartridge revolvers.
A final, experimental type of revolving rifle with the same frame size as the .44 caliber Center Hammer Model revolver was made in very limited numbers and probably less than 20 were built. Allen & Wheelock placed a total of about 8,000 guns in all in the percussion revolver market during the eight years the firm was in existence.
The Model 1868 Pistol was fabricated and tested at the request of General William Sherman. He thought a single shot pistol would be advantageous for cavalry use. Needless to say, he was not happy with the revolver concept.
Springfield made two of these .50 caliber pistols with a rifling twist of 42". The pistol was tested using .50-45-450 cartridges. It was not found to be satisfactory and the bullets had a tendency to tumble in flight. For a short time, some testing of a .36 caliber pistol or pistol action was tried, but nothing positive resulted.
There are a number of non-armory produced pistols available that look very similar to the ones that Springfield produced. Typically they were constructed from .50 and .45 caliber parts. Some were produced for the movie industry and some for "other" reasons. The only two Springfield made .50 caliber trapdoor pistols reside in museums: the Smithsonian and the Springfield Armory museum.
44 caliber percussion, 6 shot revolver, 7,5" barrel, unfluted cylinder, marked "Freeman's Pat. Dec. 9, 1862/Hoard's Amory, Watertown, N.Y."
Produced in 1863 and 1864 at Hoard's Armory, Watertown, New York.
Only approximately 2500 total were ever built with most being privately purchased by individuals going into the War and possibly a few sold to state bulk purchases. Like many of the other large handguns of the time (Mass Arms, Metropolitans, Joslyns, Butterfields, Wesson & Leavitt Dragoons, etc), these Freeman Armys are considered as being Secondary Martial Civil War revolvers.
Freeman's should look a little familiar.
Austin Freeman had the patent, but Charles Hoard of Watertown, NY made them. Freeman had gotten his patent in DEcember of 1862, and the revolvers were made between 1863 and 1864 with Hoard making changes from the patent. It is believed Freeman may have been
employed by Remington, but in 1861 was definitely working for Starr in Binghham, NY.
Freeman had hoped to interest Starr in his making is revolvers, but Starr was haivng trouble keeping up with the revovler and carbine propduction. So, he turned to Hoard. Hoard had a new mdoern plant with 150 workers worign day and night shifts mkaing contract musekts a spart of a June 1862 contract for 25,000 stands at $20 each. Followed by a second for 20,000 at $19.00. By August of 1865, he was able to get 12,800 made and delivered. But, Hoard thought he could take on the Freeman revolvers as well when Freeman showed up with his pitcj in late 1862.
Hoard wrote the Ordnance Depaprptment, in February of 1863, looking to make 5,000 revolvers ay $11 each (a clever "market strategy' considering what Colts and Remingtons were bringing). The Secretary of War said okay. But the price was a slip, may be on purpose or not, as the actual price of $12 which the Government agreed to anyways.
But Hoard was BSing a bit, as he was already runnng behind on his musket production. In February of 1864 he wrote asking for more time.
The Government was not happy, as Hoard had not even delivered one revolver yet. An extension was denied, and Hoard was pressured for a date for a delivery if a new contract was given. Hoard said yes, and a new contraxct was granted in April 8, 1864 for 5,000 revolvers at $12 to be made "by the end of 1864." On May 26th, they asked for a sample that would be interchangeable with a Remington Army.
Hoard sent two. They wre imemdiately rejected and sent back fopr defects in workmanship and materials. they were so bad they were unacceptable as smaple patterns. Hoard was asked for two more that were.
Hoard did not comply, and by the end date of the contract, December 21, 1864, he had delivered none. The Government was suspicious, and on had already on November 29, 1864 gave a contract to Rogers & Spencer for 5,000 revolvers. These were made as the Rogers & Spencer, and were delivered between January and September 1865. There appears to be no connection or link between Freeman and Rogers & Spencer, and R & S may have stolen Freeman's designs. If they did not, it is lost to history. One can see the Freeman in the Rogers & Spencer.
Hoard may have sold someof his inventory to some states, it is not clear.
Rogers & Spencer sent two sample revolvers to the Ordnance Department in September of 1864 and asked for a 5,000 gun contract at $12 with appendanges. It was denied on September 17 as the Government had enough revollers. On November 25th, they asked again. This time they were granted the contract to be set at the rate of 500 a month starting January 1865. The last batch was delivered on September 26, 1865. Not being needed, they were boxed and stored. until 1901 when 4,982 were were sold to Bannerman at 25.27 cents each. Six years alter, Bannerman had them for sale at $3.85.
Freeman moved to Herkimer NY and in 1865 and went to work for Remington through the 1872ish. In 1875 he was runnng a hotel which he later lost, and disappeared from history.
Hoard Armory went into receivership in 1865. It was reorganized, and did okay making portable steam engines. Hoard had made about 2,000 that were never delivered, and most all ended up in kegs found in the attic of a carriage house. They were sold by a son on the public square of Watertown for 25 cents each.
Last edited by Rex in OTZ; 03-22-2012 at 12:02 AM.
CS Patent No. 9 (Confederate States patent Office) August 12, 1861, Revolving pistol.
Production was about 100 firearms. No delivery to the CFA Army is known.
.36 caliber percussion, 6 shot single action revolver (Whitney navy pattern), octagon barrel,
marked T.W. Cofer Patent AUGUST 1861 o r T.W. Cofer's Patent, on barrel
Portsmouth VA has been noted. Maybe 140 had been manufactured
between 1860 and 1862.